I could literally fill pages upon pages on this topic, because one it is a very large topic, and two I just like to talk. I will attempt to keep it brief. Most people on Earth, have agreed upon a basic numbering system that we use every day. It is called "base 10" because our numbers are tallied up in groups of ten. With the numbers 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, and 9. This is what you probably grew up with, and think in every day. You think of the price of gas, the length of a road,...
The primary concepts needed in this section is to understand the various types of numbers that are dealt with, and their notations.
Natural Numbers: All positive non-decimal, non-fractional numbers. Any whole number any complete unit: 1, 2, 3, 4, etc...
Integer: Any whole number. All natural numbers and their negative counter parts. Examples: -5, -1, 0, 2, 10
Rational Numbers: Any definable number sequence. Can be repeating or terminating....